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1914 years Solar eclipse

Object : Sun / Moon
Object size : 0.5 degree
Object magnitude : -
More to know : Wikipedia: wiki/ Sun
NASA Eclipse 1914 path: SEplot/ SEplot1901/ SE1914Aug21T.GIF

Solar Eclipse 1914, Sweden Screen dump from a Swedish documentary film from 1914, credit Filmarkivet
Object : Sun and Moon
Date : 1914, 21 August
Time (UT) : 11:00 to 12:20, Sweden + 1 hour
Lens/telescope : A 35 mm normal lens for landscape and city, a 150 mm telephoto lens for solar eclipse in Stockholm and a 300 mm for solar eclipse in Sollefteå. Rough estimates.
Film/CCD : 35 mm, 1.33:1, frame 18x24 mm, 18fps
Site : Sweden, Sollefteå and Stockholm
Comment : Solar Eclipses in Sweden are not common. There was one in 1914 and I have found an old documentary film from that occasion. The Solar eclipse was recorded at two places, Sollefteå and Stockholm. The part of the film from Stockholm they have done some mix between two different films, background and solar eclipse, which doesn't looks very good, but still it's a document of an old solar eclipse. Something that we are very happy to have today.

Have a look at the documentary film here: Filmarkivet: Solförmörkelse 1914 and follow my comments below. I have also included a simulation from the program CdC (Skychart) how it looks and at what time they correspond to each other. This is a free software that you can download and do your own simulations.

Solar eclipse path:

Saros 124 1914-08-21 solar eclipse, credit NASA Credit: NASA

From NASA's Solar Eclipse Search Engine it's possible to find older solar eclipse data. From that I also got this map and data. It's the Saros 124 eclipse.

Complementary material:

Vetenskapsakademiens solförmörkelseexpedition 1914 i Forse utanför Sollefteå Credit: Wikimedia
Vetenskapsakademiens solförmörkelseexpedition 1914 i Forse utanför Sollefteå
Medlemmar i Vetenskapsakademiens solförmörkelseexpedition till Forse (nuvarande Sollefteå kommun) i Ångermland 1914 stående framför den tillfälliga byggnaden för observationsinstrumentet. Från vänster: Knut Lundmark, Andrea Lindstedt, Östen Bergstrand, två okända män och Nils Tamm.
Photographer: Unknown

The solar research team from Uppsala, in this photo the impressive telescope that was used to take photos of the solar eclipse can be seen in background. The name Knut Lundmark, Östen Bergstrand and Nils Tamm are familiar from other documents I have found about astronomy. I haven't found any photos from this triple refractor, I think it are recorded on glass plates. Maybe they also connected the film camera with its own lens to this telescope. This is a heavy fragile telescope and could not have been so easy to transport it from Uppsala to Sollefteå and back.

Vetenskapsakademiens solförmörkelseexpedition 1914 i Forse utanför Sollefteå Credit: Wikimedia
Photographer: Unknown

A close up and cropped part of the photo above show more of the details of the telescope. In the film there is no view of this telescope. It's another telescope we see in the film, a telescope only for visual use.

This must be the triple refractor that can be found in Uppsala observatory park, a 7" refractor. Double shutter for glass plates. The third objective is for manually guiding the telescope during long exposures of chemical film. Think an hour or a little more. The refractor is called the astrograph and stands in Uppsala observatory park. The sign plate of the telescope shows 1914 if I remember the year correctly. What I do know was that it was built for a solar eclipse and packed onto a railroad car to be transported north.

Long time ago I read about an instrument with three refractors, it was two 15 cm and 1500 mm focal length for photographic use and one visual refractor with 16 cm lens and 1600 mm focal length. It must be this telescope, I hope to find more information about it later.

Information about Knut Lundmark and his Sun eclipse travels: Knut Lundmark Solförmörkelseresor

Solar eclipse film at Sollefteå in Northern Sweden. Supervised by Doctor N.V.E. Nordenmark

Movie time : Comments
0:00 to 4:56 : Part 1 of the film from Sollefteå Northern Sweden.
Photographer : Pathé Fréres, Stockholm's filial ?
If the solar eclipse is filmed with 35 mm film, the film frame should be according to the 1908 standard, 18x24 mm. Based on that, the solar diameter of the film will be around 3 mm. To get it to that size, the telescope / telephoto lens should have had a focal length of about 300 mm. My own photos of the Sun / Moon with a telescope of 910 mm focal length give a solar diameter of about 9 mm on the sensor. This is a rough estimate.
The telescope we see in the film with all the people around appears to be over a meter long and with a corresponding focal length. That part of the film should be filmed with a 35 mm normal lens and not the same one that films the solar eclipse. The film of the solar disk is fairly well exposed and you can see a sunspot, it is in the same place on all the sequences and not dirt. You may be able to find lists of the sunspots for the day the eclipse occurred.

I recognize the telescope in the film as the telescope from Boberg's Observatorium at Skansen, it was borrowed to be used at this Sun eclipse. It's a high quality Carl Zeiss made telescope.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:05:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:30:00 CET, simulation in CdC

The move starts at 12:03:15 local time when the Moon start to obscure the Sun, at 00:58 in the film the Moon and Sun looks like this in the simulation. The Moon is dark and touch the Sun's disc at the up and right side.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:19:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:19:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 01:32 in the film the Moon is clearly visible.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:32:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:32:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 01:40 in the film the Moon's edge is almost at center of the Sun. There are stars in the surrounding of the Sun, but can't see any of them on the film. Not so strange because of the brightness of the Sun.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:50:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 12:50:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 01:50 in the film the Moon cover more than 50% of the Sun.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:08:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:08:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 02:20 in the film, 13:08:00 local time, just before the total eclipse begins.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:12:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:12:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At local time 13:12:00 it's the total eclipse, at 02:58 in the film. The Moon cover the whole Sun's disc. The Moon's angle size is almost the same as the Sun's. But they are of very different sizes, the Sun is 400 times bigger but also 400 times more far away. That's why they looks to be of the same size.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:16:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:16:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 03:28 in the film the total part of the eclipse is over and a small arc of the Sun's edge is visible. The total eclipse lasted about two minutes.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:30:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:30:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 03:41 in the film, still the Moon cover more than 50% of the Sun, 18 minutes after the total eclipse.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:45:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 13:45:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 04:05, not many minutes left of the eclipse.

Sollefteå 1914-08-21 14:18:00 CET

Solar eclipse Sollefteå 1914-08-21 14:18:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 04:23 in the film, local time 14:18:00 the eclipse is over and the edge of the Moon leave the Sun's disk. I got the same local time that's indicated in the film. It's now 2 hours and 15 minutes since the Moon started to cover the Sun.

The astronomer who super vised the solar eclipse, Nils Nordenmark was born 1867 at Hammerdal in Northern Sweden. He was also involved in the plans for the new observatory in Saltsjöbaden. He is also mentioned in my translation of Östen Bergtstrand's article Astronomical Observatories in Sweden, see page 9. More to read about Nils Nordenmark at Wikipedia.

Solar eclipse film at Stockholm in Sweden, unknown photographer.

Movie time : Comments
5:02 to 6:38 : Part 2 of the film continue from Stockholm.
5:02 The film sequences from Stockholm begin, they are of significantly worse quality than the ones from Sollefteå.

In the beginning of the film it's the Royal Opera House at Stockholm in the background.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:15:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:15:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 05:12 in the film, the diameter of the Sun on the film, estimated at 1.5 mm, has then been based on the fact that it is also 35 mm film with the format 18x24 mm. It is half compared to the film from Sollefteå, should then have been filmed with a telephoto lens of about 150 mm focal length. The film is overexposed and the sunspot cannot be seen here. The sunspots on the simulation doesn't have anything to do with them from 1914.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:27:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:27:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 05:24 in the film, filmed from Strömbron. The castle on the left with the tower of the Great Church rising up behind. On the right, the old Riksdag house. If it is filmed with 35 mm film, the lens should have a normal focal length, approx. 35 mm. On the Sollefteå film, the time is given as 12:20 when the solar eclipse has lasted a little longer than here. The distance between Sollefteå and Stockholm is 500 km. The Sun is near the Southern direction. You can clearly see how the Sun "vibrates" and moves relative to its surroundings. It's a mix of two films taken with different focal lengths.

The Sun eclipse was taken with a longer focal length or enlarged during copying into the background of the other film. They probably did that to show how it was experienced on the spot, and they also made the Sun much bigger so that it would be clearer or more impressive.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:40:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:40:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 05:35 in the film, the solar eclipse is slightly more advanced. Seems to have been taken from the streets Strömbron / Strömgatan, near Gustav Adolfs Torg. The Sun is a mix between two films here as well and enlarged or taken with a longer focal length.

At 05:41 in the film, in front of the Royal Opera House with St Jacob's Church in the background.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:59:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 12:59:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 05:49 in the film, film of the solar eclipse, if you compare with the Sollefteå film, the time should be just before 12:50. It's 12:59:00 in the simulation above.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 13:10:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 13:10:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 05:57 in the film, again a mix of the solar eclipse and the city, the Old Parliament House in the background. It's at 13:10:10 local time and now it's not far from the eclipse's totality.

At 06:04 in the film, in the Kungsträdgården by the statue of Charles XII.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 13:12:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 13:12:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 06:16 in the film, 7 minutes until the total eclipse occur.

Stockholm 1914-08-21 13:19:00 CET

Solar eclipse Stockholm 1914-08-21 13:19:00 CET, simulation in CdC

At 06:24 in the film, in Kungsträdgården north of Molin's fountain. This telescope has too long focal length, over 1 meter, to be the one they are filming the eclipse with. More something to visually watch the eclipse with. Presumably they project the Sun onto a white disc so that many people can see the event at the same time.

The total eclipse itself should occur shortly after this or that it has already occurred, it's dark during the total eclipse and only the Sun / Moon eclipse could be filmed. The maximum eclipse are at 13:19:00 local time when the above simulation is done to correspond to. And it looks that in Stockholm it never will be a 100% total eclipse, but almost. Maybe the photographer failed, during totality it gets much darker and you have to have more exposure, or that there were clouds in the way. We have already seen in the film that sometimes clouds appears.

Complementary material from the 1914 solar eclipse from other places:

Solförmörkelse. Örebro den 21 augusti 1914. Credit: Digitaltmuseum Örebro läns museum
Solförmörkelse. Örebro den 21 augusti 1914.
Photographer: Lindskog, Samuel

This photo is taken by the photgrapher Samuel Lindskog at Örebro in the middle of Sweden.

Bostadshus, hemmet på Kungsgatan 33, Lindesberg. Grupp sju personer framför huset, troligen solförmörkelsen den 21 augusti 1914. Credit: Digitaltmuseum Örebro läns museum
Bostadshus, hemmet på Kungsgatan 33, Lindesberg. Grupp sju personer framför huset, troligen solförmörkelsen den 21 augusti 1914. Från vänster Eva Sofia Pettersson (givarens farmor), Ester Pettersson, Kerstin Pettersson (givarens fastrar), övriga ej namngivna.
Photographer: Unknown

A photo of people looking at the solar eclipse, this is also from Örebro but I don't think they have any connection to each other.

Solförmörkelse d. 21 aug 1914 Credit: Digitaltmuseum Vänerborgs museum
Solförmörkelse d. 21 aug 1914.
Photographer: Hilding, Almén

One more photo of the solar eclipse, a heavy reflection in a filter. It's the photographer Almén Hilding who took this photo, maybe somewhere i Vänersborg.

Sannolikt skolklass som tittar på solförmörkelse Credit: Digitaltmuseum Upplandsmuseet
Sannolikt skolklass som tittar på solförmörkelse.
Photographer: Ärnström, Josef

A school class looking at solar eclipse, not sure if it's from 1914, but looks so.

Even more info related to the solar eclipse 1914:

Other Swedish total solar eclipses during  20th century:

During the 20th century we had four total solar eclipse, other than the one 1914 we had these:

Solar eclipse path 1927:

Saros 145 1927-06-29 solar eclipse, credit NASA Credit: NASA

From NASA's Solar Eclipse Search Engine it's possible to find older solar eclipse data. From that I also got this map and data. It's the 1927 solar eclipse and Saros 145. A Saros cycle is about 18 years long.

Solar eclipse path 1945:

Saros 145 1945-07-09 solar eclipse, credit NASA Credit: NASA

This is the solar eclipse from 1945, Saros 145.

Solar eclipse path 1954:

Saros 126 1954-06-30 solar eclipse, credit NASA Credit: NASA

This is the solar eclipse from 1954, Saros 126.

More to read about Saros cycle:

I can't find any who witnessed the solar eclipse from 1914 and 1927, maybe 1945 and the one from 1954 I expect many to remember. I sent an email to all I know and asked if they had any memory from that solar eclipse or remember something from their parents or friends.

My families and friends memories from 1954 solar eclipse:

Evert K (my memories what my father told me):
"It got really dark and I had to turn on the light on the car." He was 35 years old at that time

Mats M:
"I saw the one that was in 1954, I was 7 years old and it was from Urberget in Stuvsta. It was not a total solar eclipse there, but you will never forget it."

Rolf J:
"Since I was only barely two years old in 1954, I happened to sleep midday during the solar eclipse. Insulting!"

Rose-Marie K:
"I remember the solar eclipse in 1954. We were in Västergötland with my grandparents. We looked at the Sun through sooty glasses. I was 8 years old."

Britt-Marie K:
"When I read what my sister wrote I got a weak memory of it, remember the sooty glass. I was 5 years old."

Marianne B:
"I remember it was getting dark, I was 19 years old."

Evert B (Gunilla's memories from her father):
"We were at Södermalm (Stockholm) and witnessed the solar eclipse. I was filled with wonder at something I had never experienced before. It became completely dark and silent. At a later partial eclipse in 1999, I was able to draw some parallels between the events." Evert was 24 years old at that time.

Bertil N:
"We had sooty glasses and were going to watch the solar eclipse. We stood outside and watched it, it was near Gothenburg and I was 7 years old."

Gunnar L:
"In 1954 we lived in Jämtland, but at the time of the solar eclipse we were on the west coast in Laholm. It is a bit outside of totality. Don't remember much but clearly we couldn't have seen the corona."

Roland K:
"I have a memory of the solar eclipse, could it have been sometime in the 50s. I was at a summer camp for children outside Stockholm when the solar eclipse occurred. We used sooty glass to look through to protect our eyes."

Gunnar H:
"I remember very well the solar eclipse in 1954. I was 10 years old and was with my mother at a lady's house in Smedslätten (Bromma). I was sitting in the garden with a daily newspaper where all the facts about times etc. were described, in addition there was an appendix to the newspaper with a pair of glasses with a cardboard frame with two dark plastic sheets as glass, made so that you could look at the sun all the time without damage the eyes. I don't remember which magazine it was, but it should be possible to get it. The alternative if there were more of you was to take a piece of glass and soot it with the help of a candle, it was also described if I remember correctly. Anyway, I sat there and watched it all without understanding that it was probably the only opportunity in life. As I recall, the total eclipse was not very long. A guess this long time after is 5-10 min, but you can check that for fun. (It was about 2 minutes long, somewhat depending on where you where. Lars). I was fascinated but didn't understand how unique it was, but my parents had said I had to see it. (Thanks). In any case, it was a big deal in all the newspapers."

Lars J:
"My parents had an old dresser with a lot of different stuff in it. Among other things, a sooty glass in an envelope, which I wondered about. Both father and mother told about solar eclipse that they experienced and apparently the father had used the sooty glass on that occasion. Maybe it was 1945 and/or 1954?. They were born 1928 and 1935."

Göran and Inger P:
"We both remember.
First Inger's story:
I worked for Inga in Arentorp, she had catering at people's homes. We went out into the yard and it was getting dark, it was cloudy and the chickens were leaving. That's what I remember.

And Göran's story:
I worked for the Johnson line's agent in Gothenburg. I cycled over the old Hisingsbron, not the one that was torn down nowadays but the old wooden bridge to Hisingen and up on Ramberget a viewing point on Hisingen. I had bought sooty glass to be able to look at the sun, when it shone. It got dark and the birds fell silent. I'm not sure but I think the street lights came on. It is a memory that remains."

Marita A:
"I have strong memories of that day. A little scary and exciting. My sister, cousin and I were sitting on the lawn outside our house in Södertälje. Dad had sooted glass that we had to look through. We were admonished not to look at the sun. Day I remember from my childhood."

Jan C:
"As for the 1954 solar eclipse, I remember it well. Mom helped us to sot some old glass that we were going to use, but some cracked so we had to take turns looking at the sun. I remember it getting dark and we could see the corona around the sun, but I probably didn't get that excited, even though there was a lot of fuss before. We lived in Trollhättan, so that's where I saw this phenomenon."

Christer J:
"We were at my uncle Erik's in Helås and saw the solar eclipse through sooty glass panes, I was only 6 years old then."

Hans J:
"I spent the solar eclipse in 1954 with my family somewhere in southern Sweden, on a car and camping holiday. That year the family had bought a new Volvo PV. I don't know exactly where we were when the solar eclipse occurred, but I remember that I thought it was a bit unpleasant, so I cuddled with my mother in the tent. My older brother soot a shard of glass in the backpacking stove, I remember. My second solar eclipse happened in December 2019 in India. We were traveling there and got to experience what Indian newspapers called a "ring of fire". The moon did not cover the entire solar disk, but instead became a narrow, luminous ring. It wasn't completely dark but some kind of ghostly light, like in a disaster movie."

Birgitta G:
"I have faint memories of that day. Remember my dad was involved, we went off to a place I can't remember and were fitted with what I believe were special glasses. I must have seen something but didn't understand what it was all about. Remember it was a solar eclipse."

Ingvar G:
"My memories of the solar eclipse, the nearby telephone switchboard turned on the light because it was so dark. We were collecting hay (June 30, 1954). There were several of us, one was the employee Johansson, the names of the others have fallen into oblivion. I had soot glass to look at the sun with, it didn't last that long, a few minutes. It was dark both before and after. It was written a lot in the newspapers that you were not allowed to look at the sun without protection glass. Blacksmith Erik Claesson in Ulstorp used his welding helmet. I was 24 years old then."

Anna-Kajsa A:
"What I remember from the solar eclipse, is that all the birds fell silent. It was a strange feeling/experience. I was here at Lillegården in Helås, together with my Grandpa Ernst."

Clas S:
"Actually, I have a memory from 1954 when the parents had bought a brand new VW, absolutely amazing for a little guy. With the car purchase came sooty glasses to study the upcoming solar eclipse, which happened."

Kurt Verner J:
"We lived at the station in Lisbro at the time and as far as I can remember, the weather was beautiful unlike today. We tried to soot glass but it didn't go very well, otherwise it was fun."

Thanks a lot everybody, what fantastic memories collected here. I hope that I will receive ever more memories in the future from this solar eclipse 1954.

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